RICHARD NICHOLSON of CHESTER

A World of Antique Maps and Prints

Antique Maps of Berkshire

James Pepper

All the Maps on this Page are Guaranteed to be Genuine Early Specimens

CLICKING ON THE ILLUSTRATION BRINGS UP A LARGE IMAGE. DOUBLE CLICK ON THIS TO MAGNIFY OR USE THE + AND x SYMBOLS TO OPEN AND CLOSE
  •  Berkshire, John Gibson, 1759

    Berkshire, John Gibson, 1759

Published in the Reign of George III

Published in the Reign of King
GEORGE III
1760 - 1820

MINIATURE MAP - EARLY HAND COLOURING

12769 Berkshire, John Gibson, 1759. Price: 62.00

BERKSHIRE
A miniature engraved map of the county. Uncoloured rococo title cartouche. Description. Compass pointer and scale. 4.5 x 2.5 inches, 110 x 63 mm. Early outline hand colouring. Good condition.

From: New and Accurate Maps of the Counties of England and Wales
POST FREE IN THE UK
  •  Berkshire, J. Wallis / W. Lewis, 1819

    Berkshire, J. Wallis / W. Lewis, 1819

Published in the Reign of George III

Published in the Reign of King
GEORGE III
1760 - 1820

MINIATURE MAP - EARLY HAND COLOURING

14437 Berkshire, J. Wallis / W. Lewis, 1819. Price: 32.00

BERKSHIRE
A small engraved county map with short description beneath. 3.75 x 4.75 inches. Original outline and wash colouring. Good condition. With original page of descriptive text giving details of the county, towns, inns, rivers and fairs.

First published by James Wallis this map comes from William Lewis' New Traveller's Guide
POST FREE IN THE UK
  •  Berkshire, Joan Blaeu, 1662

    Berkshire, Joan Blaeu, 1662

Published in the Reign of Charles II

Published in the Reign of King
CHARLES II
1660 - 1685

EARLY HAND COLOURING

24492 Berkshire, Joan Blaeu, 1662. Price: 450.00

BERCHERIA VERNACULE BARK SHIRE. A fine 17th century engraved map of the county. Central title cartouche with figures of Knights of the Gartar. Surveyor and putti. Royal Arms and Arms of England. 19 x 1 5 inches, 500 x 382 mm. Spanish text on verso. Early hand colouring. Fine condition.
POST FREE IN THE UK
  •  Berkshire, Thomas Kitchin and Thomas Jefferys, c.1749

    Berkshire, Thomas Kitchin and Thomas Jefferys, c.1749

Published in the Reign of George II

Published in the Reign of King
GEORGE II
1727 - 1760

FOR THE MAP COLLECTOR

28728 Berkshire, Thomas Kitchin and Thomas Jefferys, c.1749. Price: 60.00

A MAP OF BERK-SHIRE. An engraved map of the county with scale and compass pointer. Beneath the map is a list of towns with their market and fair days. 4 1/4 x 5 1/2 inches, 135 x 115 mm. Original outline and wash hand colouring. Good condition.

From The Small English Atlas published by Robert Sayer
POST FREE IN THE UK
  •  Berkshire, T. Badeslade and W. H. Toms, 1742

    Berkshire, T. Badeslade and W. H. Toms, 1742

Published in the Reign of George II

Published in the Reign of King
GEORGE II
1727 - 1760

Badeslade and Toms Information

Thomas Badeslade

Principally a surveyor and engineer working with his son Henry working on river improvements and fens reclamation

He started drawing maps of the Fens and waterways and was instrumental in a number of works in the first half of the 18th century. For county map collectors his one work was a series of very distinctive maps he drew for Chorographia Brittanniae engraved and published by W. H.Toms. First published in 1741 with a further edition in 1742 in which the maps show more place names. There were further edition up to 1749. The panel of information beside each map is particularly interesting listing towns in the county with their Market and Fair days.

29036 Berkshire, T. Badeslade and W. H. Toms, 1742. Price: 20.00

A MAP OF BERKSHIRE. A small engraved map of the county orientated with west at the top. On the left of the map is a panel listing the main towns in the county with their market and fair days. 5 x 5 inches, 145 x 140 mm. Uncoloured. The map has two repairs. A portion of the bottom blank margin filled in and a two inch tear going across the top right hand corner of the map is repaired on verso. Special price.

From Chorographia Britanniae
POST FREE IN THE UK
  •  Berkshire, John Seller, 1701

    Berkshire, John Seller, 1701

Published in the Reign of William IV

Published in the Reign of King
WILLIAM IV
1830 - 1837

John Seller Information

John Seller

Hydrographer to James II, Queen Anne and Charles II

A prolific British cartographer of the 17th century producing many atlases, maps and charts. Became a Freeman of the Merchant Taylors' Company in 1654. Warden of the Clockmakers' Comany from 1692 to 1696. Appointed as Hydrographer to the King in 1671 and initiated the first English maritime atlas The English Pilot which was able to compete with the Dutch who had tended to dominate this field. For collectors of British county maps he produced a series of 66 maps first published in 1695 in Anglia Contracta. These maps were republished a number of times. In 1701 Joseph Wild included them in Camden's Britannia Abridg'd. There was a gap of some 80 years before the the map plates were used again by Francis Grose in the four volumes Supplement to the Antiquities of England and Wales published between 1777 and 1787. This edition are easily to identify as the name of John Seller has been deleted and the maps appear at the top half of a page with a historical descriptin of the county below.

30432 Berkshire, John Seller, 1701. Price: 39.00

BARKSHIRE. A small engraved map of the county embellished with a decorative title cartouche. 5 x 4 inches. Uncoloured. Some small light grey spots which show more on the verso otherwise good condition with wide blank margins.

From Camden's Britannia Abridg'd.
POST FREE IN THE UK
  •  Berkshire, John Cary, 1793

    Berkshire, John Cary, 1793

Published in the Reign of George III

Published in the Reign of King
GEORGE III
1760 - 1820

EARLY HAND COLOURING

30563 Berkshire, John Cary, 1793. Price: 44.00

BERKSHIRE. An engraved of the county. Title panel with compass rose. 10 1/4 x 8 1/4 inches. Imprint of the publisher John Cary dated 1793 beneath the map. Original outline hand colouring. Good clean undamaged condition. With this map is the original page of descriptive text. Straight from the atlas and not sold as a single map before.

From Cary's New and Correct English Atlas
POST FREE IN THE UK
  •  Berkshire, John Owen and Emanuel Bowen, c.1730

    Berkshire, John Owen and Emanuel Bowen, c.1730

Published in the Reign of George II

Published in the Reign of King
GEORGE II
1727 - 1760

18TH CENTURY COUNTY AND ROAD MAP

30664 Berkshire, John Owen and Emanuel Bowen, c.1730. Price: 33.00

BERKSHIRE. An engraved county map with description, surmounted by a decorative cartouche titled The Roads from Oxford to Salisbury &c.. A strip road map on verso showing the route from Oxford to beyond Hungerford with coat of arms and engraved notes. 4 x 7 inches. Uncoloured. Good condition.

From Britannia Depicta
POST FREE IN THE UK
  •  Berkshire, James Pigot / Isaac Slater, c.1857

    Berkshire, James Pigot / Isaac Slater, c.1857

Published in the Reign of Queen Victoria

Published in the Reign of Queen
VICTORIA
1837 - 1901

EARLY HAND COLOURING

30767 Berkshire, James Pigot / Isaac Slater, c.1857. Price: 69.00

BERKSHIRE. An engraved map of the county with title, scale, explanation and list of hundreds. Embellished with an uncoloured view of St. George’s Chapel, Windsor. 14 x 8 3/4 inches. Original outline hand colouring. On stout paper. Good undamaged condition.

From Isaac Slater’s New British Atlas
POST FREE IN THE UK
  •  The Upper Thames, John Bartholomew, c.1898

    The Upper Thames, John Bartholomew, c.1898

Published in the Reign of Queen Victoria

Published in the Reign of Queen
VICTORIA
1837 - 1901

30823 The Upper Thames, John Bartholomew, c.1898. Price: 24.00

THE UPPER THAMES. A colour printed map showing parts of Reading and Windsor with surrounding area. Inset map of Oxford and environs. Scale of 4 miles to the inch. Shows the railways. 16 1/2 x 12 1/2 inches. Good clean condition.

From The Royal Atlas
POST FREE IN THE UK
  •  Berkshire, Edward Langley and William Belch, 1820

    Berkshire, Edward Langley and William Belch, 1820

Published in the Reign of George III

Published in the Reign of King
GEORGE III
1760 - 1820

FOR THE MAP COLLECTOR

30911 Berkshire, Edward Langley and William Belch, 1820. Price: 52.00

LANGLEY’S NEW MAP OF BERKSHIRE. An engraved map of the county. In the top right hand corner is a vignette view of South Terrace Windsor Castle. The title appears above the map. Beneath the map is the publishers imprint Printed and Published by Langley & Belch, No. 173 High Street, Borough, London, Aug. 1st, 1817. 10 x 6 3/4 inches. Manuscript number 2 in top right hand corner. Original outline and wash hand colouring. Toned with some foxing mainly in the margins. Small brown mark near the vignette view. No tears or repairs.

From Langley’s New County Atlas of England and Wales
POST FREE IN THE UK
  •  Berkshire, T. Badeslade and W. H.Toms 1742

    Berkshire, T. Badeslade and W. H.Toms 1742

Published in the Reign of George II

Published in the Reign of King
GEORGE II
1727 - 1760

Badeslade and Toms Information

Thomas Badeslade

Principally a surveyor and engineer working with his son Henry working on river improvements and fens reclamation

He started drawing maps of the Fens and waterways and was instrumental in a number of works in the first half of the 18th century. For county map collectors his one work was a series of very distinctive maps he drew for Chorographia Brittanniae engraved and published by W. H.Toms. First published in 1741 with a further edition in 1742 in which the maps show more place names. There were further edition up to 1749. The panel of information beside each map is particularly interesting listing towns in the county with their Market and Fair days.

My Image

Like all the maps on this page
GUARANTEED
to be a genuine early specimen

SHOWS MARKET AND FAIR DAYS

31083 Berkshire, Thomas Badeslade and William Henry Toms, 1742. Price: 45.00

BERKSHIRE. A delightful small engraved map of the county with scale and compass rose. To the left of the map is a panel providing information on Members of Parliament and listing the major towns with the Market and Fair Days. 5 3/4 x 5 1/2 inches. Uncoloured. Publisher’s imprint beneath dated 1742 with the names of Thomas Badeslade the surveyor and W. H. Toms the engraver, Very nice good clean condition.

From Chorographia Britanniae
Provenance: In 1925 the atlas was owned by A. P. Hamilton
  •  Chorographia Britanniae 1742

    Chorographia Britanniae 1742

  •  Chorographia Britanniae 1742 Dedication

    Chorographia Britanniae 1742 Dedication

It is interesting to note that the atlas was intended for the use of his Majesty King George I for his tour through England and Wales. He died on June 11th, 1727. The dedication is to Frederick Prince of Wales, son of George II born February 1st, 1707 and who died on March 31st, 1751 at Kew.

POST FREE IN THE UK
  •  Berkshire, George Washington Bacon c.1896

    Berkshire, George Washington Bacon c.1896

Published in the Reign of Queen Victoria

Published in the Reign of Queen
VICTORIA
1837 - 1901

31256 Berkshire, George Washington Bacon, c.1896. Price: 19.00

BERKSHIRE REDUCED FROM THE LATEST ORDNANCE SURVEY. DIVIDED INTO 5 MILE SQUARES. A good detailed late Edwardian colour printed map of county. Shows the railways. 18 x 11 3/4 inches. Tiny nick on edge of bottom blank margin otherwise good condition.
POST FREE IN THE UK
  •  Berkshire, John Cary 1787

    Berkshire, John Cary 1787

Published in the Reign of George III

Published in the Reign of King
GEORGE III
1760 - 1820

FIRST EDITION - EARLY HAND COLOURING

31271 Berkshire, John Cary 1787. Price: 55.00

BERKSHIRE. The FIRST EDITION good detailed engraved county map. Title panel and compass rose combined. Publishers imprint beneath dated 1787. 10 1/4 x 8 1/4 inches. Original outline hand colouring. Good condition. With this map is the original page of descriptive text.

From Cary's New and Correct English Atlas

THE SUBSCRIBERS TO THE FIRST EDITION

If you are thinking of buying this map you may be interested to see this list of the original subscribers to Cary's New and Correct English Atlas first published in 1787. It makes interesting reading and might even include one of your relatives.

  •  New and Correct English Atlas Subscribers

    New and Correct English Atlas Subscribers

  •  New and Correct English Atlas Subscribers

    New and Correct English Atlas Subscribers

  •  New and Correct English Atlas Subscribers

    New and Correct English Atlas Subscribers

  •  New and Correct English Atlas Subscribers

    New and Correct English Atlas Subscribers

  •  New and Correct English Atlas Subscribers

    New and Correct English Atlas Subscribers

  •  New and Correct English Atlas Subscribers

    New and Correct English Atlas Subscribers

POST FREE IN THE UK
  •  Berkshire, Archibald Fullarton c.1843

    Berkshire, Archibald Fullarton c.1843

Published in the Reign of Queen Victoria

Published in the Reign of Queen
VICTORIA
1837 - 1901

Archibald Fullarton Information

Archibald Fullarton

Founded the Scottish publishing firm of A. Fullarton and Company

The company started in Glasgow in 1833 but further expansion came with moves to Edinburgh, London and Dublin. They published many geographical works but for map collectors they issued A New and Comprehensive Gazetteer of England and Wales 1833 - 1837 produced in four volumes by James Bell which contained 44 maps by three renowned engravers Gray, Neele and Scott. The maps appeared again in 1843 in a renamed work Parliamentary Gazetteer of England and Wales improved by the addition of railways. Some of the county maps are plain and others are embellished with an engraved vignette view of a local scene.

31324 Berkshire, Archibald Fullarton c.1843. Price: 24.00

BERKSHIRE. A detailed engraved map of the county embellished with a vignette view of Windsor Castle. Scale, compass rose and list of hundreds. 9 1/2 x 7 1/4 inches. Uncoloured. Original centre fold. Some light foxing in the top blank margin otherwise good undamaged condition.

From The Parliamentary Gazetteer
POST FREE IN THE UK
  •  Berkshire,  Joshua Archer, c.1845

    Berkshire, Joshua Archer, c.1845

Published in the Reign of Queen Victoria

Published in the Reign of Queen
VICTORIA
1837 - 1901

31346 Berkshire, Joshua Archer, c.1845. Price: 20.00

BERKSHIRE. An engraved map of the county with scale, list of hundreds and explanation. 9 1/4 x 7 inches. Uncoloured. 9 1/4 x 7 inches. Very lightly toned. Good condition.

Engraved for Dugdales England and Wales Delineated
POST FREE IN THE UK
  •  Berkshire, Reuben Ramble 1844

    Berkshire, Reuben Ramble 1844

  •  Berkshire Text, Reuben Ramble 1844

    Berkshire Text, Reuben Ramble 1844

Published in the Reign of Queen Victoria

Published in the Reign of Queen
VICTORIA
1837 - 1901

Reuben Ramble Information

Reuben Ramble

Reuben Ramble was a pseudonym of the Reverend Samuel Clark (1810 - 1875). The Rector of Eaton-Bishop in Herefordshire and later a curate in Northamptonshire. He wrote geography books for children being in partnership with the publisher William Darton from c.1836 to 1843. Many copies of Reuben Ramble's Travels will no doubt have been lost over the years through mistreatment by children. I have seen specimens with added drawings, scribbles and doodles done with pencil and crayons during the time I have been dealing in maps. An interesting and whimsical addition for your map collection.

EARLY HAND COLOURING

FOR THE MAP COLLECTOR

31355 Berkshire, Reuben Ramble, c1845. Price: 80.00

BERKSHIRE. An uncommon lithograph miniature map of the county surrounded by a wide border of vignette views of local scenes including Eton College, Windsor Castle, White Horse and Farm land. The maps first appeared in Miller’s New Miniature Atlas published in 1810. The decorative views were added and the maps republished by Darton & Clark in “Reuben Ramble’s Travels Through the Counties of England” in 1844. 5 3/4 x 7 1/4 inches. This is the size of overall area and not the contained map. Original hand colouring. With this map is the original double sided page of text describing the county.
POST FREE IN THE UK
  •  Berkshire, Carington Bowles, 1785

    Berkshire, Carington Bowles, 1785

Published in the Reign of George III

Published in the Reign of King
GEORGE III
1760 - 1820

  •  Sir H. George Fordham

    Sir H. George Fordham

EARLY HAND COLOURING

FOR THE MAP COLLECTOR

31415 Berkshire, Carington Bowles, 1785. Price: 115.00

BOWLES’S NEW MEDIUM MAP OF BERKSHIRE DIVIDED INTO ITS HUNDREDS.. A good detailed late 18th century map of the county. The title appears within a circular panel bearing the imprint of Carington Bowles No. 69 in St. Paul’s Church Yard. Beneath the map is a further imprint Published as the Act directs, 3 Jan. 1785. Around the map are interesting engraved notes pertaining to the county. 12 1/2 x 8 3/4 inches. Explanation and scale. Original outline hand colouring. Superb clean condition having been taken straight from the atlas and not sold previously as a single map.

From Bowles’s New Medium English Atlas. The maps in this atlas are based on the maps by Emanuel and Thomas Bowen in their Atlas Anglicanus. The title cartouche has been changed as well as the addition of the distance in miles from London shown by some town names.

Provenance

  •  Titlepage

    Titlepage

  •  Signature

    Signature

This map comes from an atlas which was once in the library of the renowned carto-bibliographer Sir Herbert George Fordham (1854 - 1929). He was the first to attempt the systematic cataloguing of the maps of an English county. Born on 9th May 1854 at Odsey, a manor on the borders of Hertfordshire and Cambridgeshire sold to the Fordham family in 1793 by the 5th Duke of Devonshire. The flyleaf of the atlas was signed H.George Fordham, Odsey, 1925. Further reading: Map Collectors' Circle No. 51: Sir H.George Fordham Carto-bibliographer by J. M. Henshall.

The atlas was later in the library of Professor Eva Germaine Remington Taylor (1879 - 1966) Distinguished geographer. Presented after her death to Birbeck College, University of London. Sold by their order at Sotheby's, London and purchased by Richard Nicholson

POST FREE IN THE UK
  •  Berkshire, Samuel Lewis 1845

    Berkshire, Samuel Lewis 1845

  •  Lewis' Atlas to the Topographical Dictionaries of England and Wales

    Lewis' Atlas to the Topographical Dictionaries of England and Wales

Published in the Reign of Queen Victoria

Published in the Reign of Queen
VICTORIA
1837 - 1901

EARLY HAND COLOURING

31573 Berkshire, Samuel Lewis, 1845. Price: 28.00

BERKSHIRE. A map drawn by R. Creighton and engraved by J. & C. Walker. 9 x 6 3/4 inches. Original outline hand colouring. Good clean condition. Straight from the atlas and not sold as a single map before now.

From Lewis' Atlas to the Topographical Dictionaries of England and Wales

POST FREE IN THE UK

Excellent Book for the County Map Collector

If you can find a copy

When I started collecting and selling maps back in the 1960's there were very few reference books on antique maps. The first book I remember buying was Maps and Mapmakers by R. V. Tooley. Full of wonderful information but over the years there were periods when it was out of print. The Antique Collectors Club used to produce a large range of books on all kinds of antiques and in 1983 BRITISH COUNTY MAPS by YASHA BERISINER was published. To the best of my knowledge there has not been another book like it published. A most useful and informative work and essential for the avid county map collector. I think there was just the one edition. If you can get hold of a copy at a reasonable price my advice would be - Buy it. There is a link below that will search Amazon for copies on sale.

My well used copy pictured on the right still has its distinctive red cover illustrating Cambridgeshire by John Speed. The county I was born in.

British County Maps by Yasha Beresiner

A must read

for the lover of Maps, Roads and History

I was 19 when I got hooked on antique maps. There are quite a few of the early cartographers who we know a bit about about and their life stories make interesting reading. There is one English mapmaker who stands out as someone rather special who appears to have had a most interesting life. He is JOHN OGILBY. Yes you know he was the first to map the roads of England and Wales and yes you might have read that he had an interest in dancing. If you want to know more about the man who created that 17th century map hanging on your wall then you must read this book published in 2016 - The Nine Lives of John Ogilby by Alan Ereira. In this book the author brings a fascinating hidden history to light, and reveals that Ogilby's celebrated Britannia is far more than a harmless road atlas: it is, rather, filled with secrets designed to serve Charles II's sinister purpose.

You can order this book now and get it for less than the cover price of 25 pounds.

  •  The Nine Lives of John Ogilby by Alan Ereira

    The Nine Lives of John Ogilby by Alan Ereira

AN ANTIQUE MAP OR PRINT MAKES A VERY SPECIAL RETIREMENT GIFT

RICHARD NICHOLSON of CHESTER

Stoneydale
Pepper Street
Christleton
Chester
CH3 7AG

Telephone
01244 336004

International
44 1244 336004

Richard Nicholson

I have been buying and selling antique maps since the early 1960's during which time I had a gallery in Watergate Street, Chester for 30 years. I am now able to offer through my websites a personal service to map and print collectors.

James Pepper
Nicholson Seal
All the maps are guaranteed to be genuine early specimens

Frequently Asked Questions

Are the maps old or are they just copies of old maps?
The maps are all genuine early specimens published in or around the year stated. A guarantee label is provided with each map.
How quickly are order sent off?
Orders are dealt quickly. Orders received in the morning are usually sent off the same day as I receive them. Failing this it is usually the next day.
Is map number --- available?
The web site is updated daily and sold items are removed so it is most likely that the map is available. You can always email me to check availability
What currency are your prices in?
All the prices on my web sites are in English pounds or pounds sterling.
What is the best way to pay?
There is a Shopping Cart for most of the maps to pay by PayPal. The best way is to email me to check a map is available then pay the total amount to my bank account and advise me you have done so. Telephone orders using your Mastercard or Visa Card are also welcome. Overseas customers may find the PayPal Cart the easiest way to by. The reason I prefer the bank payment method is simply because the charges to me are far less than the other methods.
Can I call and see the maps?
I am sorry, no. I had a map and print shop in the centre of Chester for 30 years. Since closing the shop the business is postal only except for the few maps that are available only for collection from Christleton.
How many copies do you have of each map?
I only have one specimen of each map offered. If I had a second similar specimen it would be offered separately under a different reference number.

Some of the nice things Customers have said

2017 
Just to say the map arrived safe and sound thank you and is beautiful. We will be getting it framed ASAP as we are both scared of touching it and damaging it!
RN
I just wanted to confirm that I have received my map of Staffordshire. It is so beautiful. I cannot wait to get it framed and display it in my home.
NS
2016 
Thank you very much for the prompt despatch. I am getting them framed for my partner's Christmas present and I'm sure he will love them
KR
Maps arrived safe and sound this morning. Thank you so much, they're absolutely stunning and I'm sure will be greatly appreciated by the people receiving them. Absolutely perfect - I'm beaming from ear to ear!!
KT
Richard, as you likely gathered, we received the maps intact; very nice indeed, now framed and ready to hang on the wall!
DS
I have to commend you, sir, your website is quite the paradise for history buffs and cartography geeks.
JT
I just wanted to let you know that the map arrived safely and it's beautiful, my Dad is going to love it.
LK
2015 
Thank you so much, it has already arrived and it is beautiful. Very satisfied customer!
AM
Many thanks. Received in really good condition.
DP
The map has arrived safely. Thank you. I am pleased to have it.
JH
I received the map today! It was in great condition! Thank you for a great transaction
CN
The Cheshire map arrived today.  Thank you so much, it is beautiful
RF
Many thanks for sending the map. I have just received it in a very good condition
IA
Very impressed with the print and the way it had been securely packaged. Thank you for excellent service.
DW
2014 
Thank you for the map of Northumberland, very well packed and delivered safely today. This will be added to my family history research. I do enjoy maps! MP
Map 'Leicestershire and Rutlandshire' arrived today. Delighted with the purchase. Thank you very much. PW
The map arrived this morning, very well packaged and I'm very happy with it. Thank you for the great service! HS
I received the map today. It was really well packed and arrived really fast. Thank you very much for an excellent item. KK
Hi, just wanted to say thank you for map, its fantastic. Much appreciated. TB
Thank you so much for the two prints of Chester which arrived yesterday.They were beautifully packed, arrived unharmed and are now in new frames. NP
Many thanks for the Ogilby maps, which I finally collected from the Post Office on Saturday morning. I'm so pleased with them that I'd like to order in addition your 1675 copy of plate 73. LA
The map has just arrived.  Thank you so much.  It's perfect for my research. LF
Antique Maps of Berkshire, England - Richard Nicholson

We use cookies to improve your browsing experience on our site, analyse site traffic and understand where our audience is coming from